A Society Dedicated to the Christmas Nativity




Abrams, Richard  and  Hutchinson, Warner A.
An Illustrated Life of Jesus
New York:  Wings Books, 1982
(many paintings of the Nativity)

Acker, Helen
“The Bronze Doors of Ghiberti”
A Christmas Gallery, pp. 42-46
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1970

Allen, Charles L.  and  Wallis, Charles L
When Christmas Came to Bethlehem
Westwood, New Jersey:  Fleming H. Revell, c.1963
(“…unique character studies…” of some of the participants in the manger scene)

“An Adobe All Aglow”
Country Sampler West.  December 1993, pp. 34-39
(Christmas decorating with nacimientos)

Araki, Chiyo
Origami for Christmas
Tokyo:  Kodansha International, 1986
(Nativity scene is one of 34 origami creations)

Arnaud, Linda
The Artful Christmas.  Holiday Menus & Festive Collectibles
Photography, Michel Arnaud
Design & Art Direction, Joel Avirom
New York:  Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 2002
(Nativities: pp. 14-15, 18-21, 26-27, 142)

El arte tradicional del Nacimiento
Artes de Mexico, Revista libro numero 81, Ano 2006
Mexico D.F.: Artes de Mexico, noviembre de 2006
(“The Traditional Art of the Nativity Scene” – A complete English version, pages 81-96)

“Artistry and Art of Christmas”
Italy Italy Magazine, Year V, No. 9, November, 1987, p. 42

Aspectos de las fiestas navideñas en México:  Galería Universitaria
Aristos, noviembre 1981-febrero 1982
(Aspects of Christmas Celebrations in Mexico:  Galería Universitaria Aristos, November 1981-February 1982)
Text in Spanish, English, French
México:  Coordinación de Humanidades, Centro de Investigación y Servicios Museológicos, 1981

Awalt, Barbe  and  Rhetts, Paul
Charlie Carrillo: Tradition & Soul – Tradición y Alma
Albuquerque:  LPD Press, 1995
(biography of a southwestern santero)

Awalt, Barbe  and  Rhetts, Paul
Our Saints Among Us/ Nuestros Santos entre Nosotros – 400 Years of New Mexican Devotional Art
With an essay by Thomas J. Steele, SJ, and Charles M. Carrillo
Albuquerque:  LPD Press, 1998
(catalog of a traveling exhibit of southwestern santos)

Babcock, Barbara A.  and  Monthan, Guy and Doris
The Pueblo Storyteller.  Development of a Figurative Ceramic Tradition
Tucson:  The University of Arizona Press, 1986
(mentions Nativity makers, but no photos)

Bainton, Roland H.
Behold the Christ.  A portrayal of Christ in words and pictures
Author assisted by Sumathi Devasahayam
New York:  Harper & Row, Publishers, A Collins Associates Book, 1974
(collection of images of Jesus Christ as depicted by artists from the first to the twentieth Centuries – Nativity-related: pp. 34-65).

Barbash, Shepard
Oaxacan Woodcarving.  The Magic in the Trees
San Francisco:  Chronicle Books, 1993
(mention, photos of Nativities – many carvers produce)

Bauroth, Nan
“Away in a Manger”
Traditional Home, Holiday 1995, Volume VII, Issue VI, pp. 102-104
(Nativity collection in the Bavarian National Museum)

Beckett, Sister Wendy
Sister Wendy’s Nativity
New York:  HarperCollins Publishers in association with Rose
Publishing, 1998
(a study of the life of Jesus through the medium of classical paintings)

Beckett, Sister Wendy
Sister Wendy’s Story of Christmas
Munich:  Prestel-Verlag, 1997
(Christmas story shown through paintings of the Nativity)

Beckwith, Barbara
“Friends of the Creche”
St. Anthony Messenger, December 2002, Volume 110/Number 7, pp. 22-28.

Bell, Charles
“For Five Decades, Family Upholds Holy Tradition”
New York Daily News, December 20, 1997, p.17
(story of the presepio created by Tony Laccitello in his Bronx church and how his grandson followed in his

Benson, Robert.  Text
The Night of the Child. Photographs from The Upper Room Museum Nativity Collection
Photography by Dean Dixon
Nashville:  Upper Room Books, 2001
(Nativity photographs, with reflections on the birth of Jesus)

Berliner, Rudolf
The Christmas Crib: An Introduction to an Exhibition
Brooklyn, New York:  privately printed essay, 1940

Berliner, Rudolf
“The Origins of the Crèche”
Gazette des Beaux Arts, vol. 30, 1946, pp. 249-278

Bilz, Hellmut
Erzgebirgische Volkskunst.  Popular Arts and Crafts from the Erzgebirgische Mountains
English text by Eva Wolf
no publisher – no date
(history of crafts from Germany, including Nativities, with which we are all familiar)

Bolz, Diane M.
“Art imitates life in the small world of Baroque crèches”
Smithsonian Magazine, December 1991, pp. 101-105

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
Mystery of the Holy Night
NewYork:  The Crossroad Publishing Co., 1996
(illustrated with famous paintings)

Book of Christmas, The
New York:  The Readers Digest Association, Inc., 1973
(The Birth of Christ, pp. 9-32, History of Christmas, pp. 37-68, Christmas Around the World, pp. 277-300)

Bordignon Elestici, Letizia
Presepi nel Mondo / Nativity Scenes Worldwide
Milano:  BE-MA Editrice, 1990  (Itinerari d’immagini)
(98 pages of Nativity pictures)

Borrelli, Gennaro  and  Fildelfo, Margherita
“The Neapolitan Christmas Crèche, A Living Tradition with a Glorious Past” 
Italy Italy Magazine, Year VI, No. 9, November 15-December 15, 1988

Boyd, E.
Popular Arts of Spanish New Mexico
Santa Fe:  Museum of New Mexico Press, 1974
(Nativity-related representations in various media – Bibliography)

Boyd, E.  and  Breese, Frances
New Mexico Santos.  How to Name Them
Santa Fe:  Museum of New Mexico, International Folk Art Foundation, 1966
(in the art of the New Mexican santero, how to identify members of the Holy Family and St. Francis of Assisi)

Brenner, Robert
Christmas:  1940-1959.  A Collector’s Guide to Decorations and Customs
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2002
(Nativities:  pp. 44, 136-138)

Brenner, Robert
Christmas Past.  A Collectors’ Guide to its History and Decorations
West Chester, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1985
(Nativities: pp. 25-27, 49)

Brenner, Robert
Christmas Revisited
West Chester, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1986
(Chapter 7, pp. 86-89, 196: “Nativity Scenes Celebrating the Birth of Christ”)

Brenner, Robert
Christmas Through the Decades.  A Guide to Christmas Antiques
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1993
(information on: Nativities 1950s-60s, Putz 1910-1980s - Bibliography)

Brenner, Bob
“Crèche Scenes – Paper and Cardboard”
The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 11, Issue 5, November, 1990, pp. 71-75

Brenske, Helmut
Icons.  Windows to Eternity
Oberauer, Germany:  Berghaus, 1996

Briggs, Charles L.
The Wood Carvers of Cordova, New Mexico – Social Dimensions of an Artistic “Revival”
Knoxville:  The University of Tennessee Press, 1980

Broadway Bill
“Virginia Collector Sees World in Folk Art Crèches”
Washington Post.com, December 7, 2001
“Hobby That’s Away in a Manger:
Los Angeles Times, December 25, 2001, p. E2
“Away in a Manger”
Monterey County Herald, December 15, 2001

Brown, Rachel W. N.
Adoration Quilts: Applique Nativity Projects
Woodinville, Washington:  Martingale & Company, 2006
(designs based on Nativity story – manger scene,
star, angel, 3 Wise Men, animals, shepherds –
as tree skirt, table runner, etc.)

Buechner, Frederick
The Faces of Jesus
New York:  A Stearn/Harper and Row Book, 1989
(illustrations, photographs of Ivories to the 20th Century)

Burke, Sean P., MM
Infant of Joy.  Christmas Cribs from Around the World
Hong Kong: Maryknoll House, 2006
(showcases collection of Rev. Sean P. Burke MM in 224 pictures)

Butz, Geneva M.
Christmas Comes Alive!
New York:  The Pilgrim Press, 1988
(the living crèche of Old First Reformed Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

Byfield, Magda
“Neapolitan Crib Figures”
Spinning Wheel, December, 1976, pp. 26-31

Bynum, Flora Ann L.
The Christmas Heritage of Old Salem
Williamsburg:  The Williamsburg Publishing Co., 1983
(story of German Moravian Christmas, pyramids, putz)

Bynum, Flora Ann
“The Putzes of Christmas”
The State, December, 1983
(story of putzes in general, Old Salem putz, specifically)

Cadbury, Betty
“Crèche Figures or Dolls of Devotion”
Christmas in July – Souvenir Journal, United Federation of Dolls Clubs, Inc.,
Washington, D.C., 1980

Cali, François
Provence, Land of Enchantment
Chicago:  Rand McNally & Company, 1965
(general information, photos of Santons)

Canadas, Michael
“18th-19th Century Neapolitan Crèche Figures”
Antique Doll Collector.  Volume 2, Number 9.  pp. 19-26

Cannon, Elaine
The Christmas Crèche
Salt Lake City:  Bookcraft, 1998
(devotional readings with Nativity scenes from the collection of Holly Zenger)

Carpenter, Denise  and  Kelsey, Sandra
The Nativity  (Presepio, Krippe, Crib, Pesebre, Crèche, Nacimiento)
The Golden Glow of Christmas Past
(catalog for Nativity exhibit at 1990 Golden Glow Convention – Bibliography)

Carpenter, Denise  and  Kelsey, Sandra
“The Nativity”
The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 11, Issue 4, September, 1990, pp. 53-60

Castaldo, Giuseppe
“Christmas in Naples”
Italy Italy Magazine, Year VII, No. 9, November 15-December 15, 1989, p. 18
(other related articles in same issue)

Catello, Marisa Piccoli
The Art of the Presepio: The Neapolitan Crib of the Banco di Napoli Collection
Naples:  Banco di Napoli, 1987

Causa, Raffaello
“Miracle Play”
with a text by William Butler Yeats
photography by Massimo Listra
FMR (Magazine)   (Franco Maria Ricci)
No. 7, December, 1984, First Year, America pp. 67-96
(“All the figures reproduced here are from the collection of the Museo della Certosa de San Martino, Naples.”)

Chalippe, O.F.M., Father Candide
The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi
New York:  P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 1918
(contains the story of the Christmas Crib of Greccio)

Chalmers, Irena  and  Friends
The Great American Christmas Almanac
New York:  Viking Studio Books, Penguin Group, 1988
(early U.S. Nativities, pp. 8-12 – celebrations of the season, pp. 49-62)

Child Is Born, A
London:  Phaidon Press Limited, 1994
(paintings of the Madonna)

Chrismas, Irma Brown
Christmas Trees, Decorations and Ornaments
New York:  Hearthside Press Incorporated, 1956
(Nativity scenes, pp. 50-94)

Christensen, Erwin O.
Early American Wood Carving
New York:  Dover Publications, Inc., 1972
(mentions works of New Mexico santeros, putz carver George Huguenin, and others)

Christmas.  An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1996
(every issue has at least one Nativity-related article – a few are listed in this Bibliography under the name of the author)

Christmas Around the World
Milwaukee:  Ideals Publishing Co., 1958
(each page a different country – many include Nativities)

Christmas Around the World - LIFE
New York:  Time, Inc., November 29, 2004.  Volume 4, Number 5
(“The Nativity and the Creche”, pp.32-35 + miscellaneous)

Christmas at Home
Des Moines, Iowa:  Better Homes and Gardens Books, 1992
(directions for making two Nativities, pp. 47-60)

Christmas Book, The.    A Treasury of the Sights, Sounds, Crafts,
Tastes & Joys of the Season
San Francisco:  Ortho Books, Chevron Chemical Company, 1987
(miscellaneous Nativity information, pp. 13, 92-93)

Christmas Crèche, The
An exhibit at the San Francisco Craft and Folk Art Museum,
San Francisco, California, October 17, 1998 – January 3, 1999

Christmas Crèche, The.  A 3-Dimensional Picture Book
Bridgeport, Connecticut:  WJ Fantasy, Inc., no date (c. 1992/3)
(reproduction of children’s theatre scene created by Paul Wagner for the publisher, J.F.Schreiber, in 1888)

 Christmas Eve.  The Nativity Story in Engravings, Verse, and Song
Inspired by a handmade book by Carole Taylor
Original engravings by Lezle Williams
Music arrangements by Robert J. Holub
Layton, Utah:  Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005

Christmas in the American Southwest  -  Christmas Around the World From World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 1996
(Nativity scenes throughout – story of Las Posadas)

Christmas in Australia – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc.  a Scott Fetzer company, 1998
(only vague mentions of Nativities, but is another volume in the “Christmas Around the World” series by World Book)

Christmas in Austria
Chicago:  World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., 1982
(family krippe, p. 25 - development Austrian krippe, pp. 60-62)

Christmas in Belgium – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago: World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 2002)
(Nativities, pp. 21-23, 30-34 - story of 1914 Christmas Truce)

Christmas in Brazil
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1991
(Nativity displays/plays, pp. 15-20)

Christmas in Britain
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1978. 1988 reprint
(Canterbury Cathedral, p. 14 – Salisbury Cathedral, p. 61)

Christmas in Canada
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1994
(French Canadians/Acadians, pp. 16, 20, 22-23)

Christmas in Colonial and Early America
Chicago:  World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., 1975
(Moravians, Hurons, p. 22 – French New Orleans, p. 32)

Christmas in Denmark -- Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 1986
(Christmas traditions)

Christmas in Finland – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 2000
(Christmas Crèche becoming element of Christmas
in some homes)

Christmas in France
Written by Corinne Madden Ross
Chicago:  World Book-Childcraft International, Inc., 1980
(photos throughout – “Christmas in Provence”, pp. 58-63)

Christmas in France
Text by Corinne Madden Ross
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1991
(history of crèche coming from Italy, Revolution 1789, Santons, Today, pp. 30-31, 58-63)

Christmas in Germany
Chicago:  World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., 1974
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1992
(Christmas Art, pp. 56-61)

Christmas in Greece
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 2001
(Icons, pp. 18-21 – Nativity-related stories, pp. 28, 38)

Christmas in the Holy Land
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1987
(crafts: pretzel Nativity scene, pp. 64-75)

Christmas in Ireland
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1985/1988
(home Nativities, pp. 19, 53)

Christmas in Italy
Text by Corinne Ross
Chicago:  World Book-Childcraft International, Inc., 1979
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1991
(development of the presepio from catacombs of 4AD to today –
“The fabulous Italian Mangers”, pp. 30-43 – photos throughout)

Christmas in Mexico
Text by Corinne Ross
Chicago:  World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., 1976
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1991
(history and development of the nacimiento, pp. 14-15 – “Nacimientos”, pp. 16-21)

Christmas in Miniature.  Crèches from around the World
Introduction and History of the Crèche in North America by Rev. Matthew Powell, O.P.
Texts by Alberto Finizio and Antonella Salvatori
Edited by Marco Cupellaro
New Haven, Connecticut:  Knights of Columbus Museum – In Cooperation with Associazione Italiana Amici del Presepio – Rome, Italy, 2005
(catalog of exhibit at the Knights of Columbus Museum, 2005/2006 – bibliography)

Christmas in The Netherlands – From World Book
Chicago:  World Book-Childcraft International, Inc., A subsidiary of The Scott & Fetzer Company, 1981
(Christmas traditions)

Christmas in New England – From World Book
Chicago:  World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 1984
(Christmas traditions)

Christmas in the Philippines
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1990
(history and development of the belén, pp. 28-31)

Christmas in Poland
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1989
(“Szopki: Fairy-Tale Stables”, pp. 58-64)

Christmas in Puerto Rico – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago: World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 2003
(Nativities, pp. 11, 30, 31, 37-39, 58 – Three Kings Celebrations)

Christmas in Russia
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1993
(icon, p. 12)

Christmas in Scotland – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago: World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 2001)
(Christmas traditions)

Christmas in Spain
Text by Valjean McLenighan
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1983
Lincolnwood, Illinois:  Passport Books, 1991
(St. Francis at Greccio, development Nativity scenes, customs today, pp., 14-15, 28 – “The Christmas
Story in Art”, pp. 56-63 – photos throughout)

Christmas in Switzerland – Christmas Around the World from World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 1995
(Nativities and other Christmas Traditions – Bethlehem dioramas at Einsiedeln)

Christmas in Today’s Germany
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1993
(family cribs, pp. 36-37)

Christmas in Ukraine – Christmas Around the World   From World Book
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., a Scott Fetzer company, 1997
(many mentions and photos of Nativity icons)

Christmas in Washington D.C.
Chicago:  World Book, Inc., 1988
(White House crèche, p. 20 – Nativity at Christmas, pp. 52-55)

Christmas Origami
Tokyo:  Froebel-kan Co., Ltd., 1985
(directions for making a Nativity, pp. 7-14)

Cipa, Shawn
Woodcarving the Nativity in the Folk Art Style:
Step-by-Step Instructions and Patterns for a 15-piece Manger Scene
East Petersburg, Pennsylvania:  Fox Chapel Publishing Co., Inc., 2003

Cirillo, O.  and  DeLuca, M.  and Pezone, M. G.
Naples Guide
Genova, Italia:  Sagep Editrice, 1994
(information on museums, presepi, etc.)

Coffin, Tristram Potter
The Book of Christmas Folklore
New York:  A Continuum Book, The Seabury Press, 1973
(U.S. Portuguese customs, pp. 21-22)

Cohen, Gohen  and  Dumelle, Grace
Nativity Stories
Roselle, Illinois:  Roman, Inc., 1996
(features the art of Fontanini, stories of the figures made by Master Sculptor, Elio Simonetti)

Congdon-Martin, Douglas
Storytellers and Other Figurative Pottery
West Chester, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1990
(Nativity photos and Southwestern artists’ biographies throughout)

Coomler, David
The Icon Handbook.  A Guide to Understanding Icons and the Liturgy, Symbols, and Practice of the Russian Orthodox Church
Springfield, Illinois:  Templegate Publishers, 1995
(Nativity related pp. 70-74, 100-107  -  Bibliography)

Cortwright, Barbara
“The Beauty Collectors”
Arizona Highways, Vol. L, No. 5, May, 1974, pp. 12-32
Photos by Jerry Jacka
(general story of Pueblo Indian pottery – special mention and photo of nacimiento by Helen Cordero, p. 29)

“Creche Collection’s at Heart of Her Christmas”
Country Woman Magazine.  November/December 2000
“Country Woman Close-Up”, pp. 14-15
(story of Carmen Ramos and Friends of the Creche)

Creche Herald.  The Newsletter of the Christmas Nativity
Rita Bocher, Editor         Wynnewood, Pennsylvania
(quarterly publication “for all who love, own or collect creches”)

Crippen, T. G.
Christmas and Christmas Lore
London and Glasgow:  Blackie & Son Limited, first published 1923
(“The Praesepio”, pp. 78-81)

Cunningham, Aline
Christmas Crèche Craft:  sewing sculpture patterns for a Nativity group
St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, c. 1979

Curran, Dolores
“Never Enough Nativity Sets”
The Catholic Voice, December 16, 1985, p.8
(story about collection of Dolores Curran, Colorado)

della Cava, Marco R.
“Crèches from a cradle of Christianity”
USA Today, “Life” section, December 24, 1998
(San Gregorio Armeno Street, Naples, just before Christmas)

Del Re, Gerard and Patricia
The Christmas Almanack
Garden City, New York:  Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1979
(Nativities in different countries as part of Christmas celebrations)

Denver Post, Sunday Empire Magazine, December 13, 1964
“Once Upon A Christmas”
(December 1964 exhibit of Nativities and other Christmas art at the Denver Art Museum)

De Robeck, Nesta
The Christmas Crib
Milwaukee:  The Bruce Publishing Company, 1956
London:  Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1937
(traces crib art and history through the ages)

De Robeck, Nesta
The Christmas Presepio in Italy
Florence:  Giannini and Figlio Publishers, 1934

De Simone  and  Basta, Chiara
The Divine Child in the Hiky Mayr Collection
Photographs by Mario Rapuzzi
Milano:  F. M. Ricci, 2001

De Vitta, Oretta Zanini
“Gold, Frankincense, Myrrh and Macaroni”
Italy Italy Magazine, Year VII, No. 9, November 15-December 15, 1989
(article, photos Neapolitan presepi)

Dewhurst, C. Kurt,  Macdowell, Betty,  Macdowell, Marsha
Religious Folk Art in America – Reflections of Faith
New York:  E. P. Dutton, Inc., In association with the Museum of American Folk Art, 1983
(early Ottawa Indian Nativity, pp. 3 & 14, early putz, p.45, frequency of Nativity in early folk art, p. 92  -  Bibliography)

Dickey, Roland F.
New Mexico Village Arts
Drawings by Lloyd Lozes Goff
Albuquerque:  The University of New Mexico Press, 1949 – reprinted 1970, 1990
(historic background for santeros and their work  -  Bibliography)

Diel, Lynn
Flat Plane Carving the Nativity.  A Schiffer Book for Carvers
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing, 2006

di Pietri, o.f.m., Fr. Michele
In the Footsteps of St. Francis in the Territory of Rieti.  A Guide to the Sanctuaries of the Holy Valley
Termi, Italy:  Carlo Maria Livoni, Edizoni d’arte, 1989

Dowling, Alfred E. P. Raymund
The Flora of the Sacred Nativity:  An Attempt at Collecting the Legends and Ancient Dedications of Plants Connected in Popular Tradition with the Life of our Blessed Lord from His Nativity to the Flight into Egypt
London:  Kegan Paul, 2001, 1900

Dufrenne, Pascale
Petit Dictionnaire des Santons de Provence
Illustrations de Georges Potier d’apres les sujets de Marcel Carbonel
Text in English and French
Marseille:  Ateliers Marcel Carbonel, 1986

Dutton, Anne
We Adore Him    (Quilting)
Berne, Indiana:  House of White Birches, 1999
(strip-piece the eye-catching background, applique the Nativity figures to create a keepsake Christmas quilt)

Edwards, Virginia Lee
“The Story of Christmas”
Americas Magazine, Volume 21, Number 11-12, November-December, 1969, pp. 18-27
(a history of the celebrations of Christmas – traditions and crèches of Latin America, with photos)

“European Cribs”
The Glow, Newsletter of The Golden Glow of Christmas Past.
Volume 17, Number 6, December, 1996, pp. 14-15

Ehrenberger, Jerry
“The Krakow ‘Szopki’”
The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 16, Issue 3, June, 1995, p. 38, and Volume 17, Number 6, December, 1996, pp. 4-7

Erickson, Joyce
In Straw and Story
Elgin, Illinois:  The Brethren Press, 1983
(directions for making ethnic Nativities)

Evans, Sonya Loftness
“Christmas in Spain”
Christmas.  An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art
Volume Thirty-seven, pp. 23-26
Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, Publishers, 1967

Farah, A., Farah, M., Farah, W.
How to Build A Christmas Creche
Grand Blanc, Michigan:  Dan Waltz, 2003
(soft cover 8 ½” x 11”, 27 pp.)

Fidelfo, Margherita
“A Naples Crèche Goes to Pittsburgh”
Italy, Italy Magazine.  November, 1989

Findley, James A.  and   Rubin, Ellen G. K.
Pop-Ups, Illustrated Books, and Graphic Designs of Czech
Artist and Paper Engineer, Vojtěch Kubašta  (1914-1992).
A Catalog of Exhibition  January 25-April 30, 2005
Fort Lauderdale, Florida:  Bienes Center for the Literary Arts.
The Dianne and Michael Bienes Special Collections and Rare Book Library, Broward County Libraries Division, 2005
(bibliography and opus listing – Nativities shown on pages 14, 71, 84, 86, 104)

Firpi, Jose
El arte de la imaginería popular en Puerto Rico – The Art of Folk Imagery in Puerto Rico
Text in Spanish and English
San Juan:  Ediciones Tau, 1973
(history of Puerto Rican santeros with photos of their work)

Florendo, Abe  and  Tapan, George C.
Santo Niño:  The Holy Child Devotion in the Philippines
Manila:  Congregación del Santísimo Nombre del Niño Jesús, 2001

Foley, Daniel J.
Little Saints of Christmas – The Santons of Provence
Boston:  Dresser, Chapman & Grimes, Inc., 1959

Folk Art, American, from the Ozarks to the Rockies
Catalogue for an Exhibit, April 6 – May 11, 1975, at the Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma
(several pieces of St. Francis – Nativity by Oklahoman Merle Evans)

Ford, Lauren
Lauren Ford’s Christmas Book.  Scripture from the Gospel of St. Luke
Text and Pictures by Lauren Ford
New York:  Dodd, Mead and Company, 1963

Fortini, Arnaldo
Francis of Assisi / Nova Vita de San Francesco
Translation by Helen Mook
New York:  Crossroad, 1981
(Greccio, pp., 531-533)

Frank, Larry
Art and Antiques, December, 1992
(santons of New Mexico)

Gabra, Gawdat, Edited with an Introduction by
Be Thou There.  The Holy Family’s Journey in Egypt
Text by William Lyster, Cornelis Hulsman, Stephen J. Davis
Photographs by Norbert Schiller
Cairo and New York: The American University of Cairo Press, 2001

Gasperini, Pietro
Italian Christmas Cribs: The Brembo di Dalmine Crib Museum
Text in Italian and English
Ivrea:  Priuli & Verlucca Editori, 1993

Gatbonton, Esperanza Bunag
Heritage of Saints
Manila:  Editorial Assoc. Ltd, 1979
(colonial santos of the Philippines, with a section on wooden belén figures)

Gavin, Robin Farwell
Traditional Arts of Spanish New Mexico:  The Hispanic Heritage Wing at the Museum of International Folk Art
Santa Fe:  Museum of New Mexico Press, 1994
(Nativity scenes and related material throughout)

Gelber, Amy
Born Is He, the Child Divine.  Images of the Christ Child in Art
New York:  Metro Books, Fairfax Publishrs, 1997
(fine art reproductions of Nativity paintings by the masters)

Gibson, Helen  and  Congdon-Martin, Douglas
Carving the Nativity with Helen Gibson
West Chester, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1992

Gibson, Helen  and  Congdon-Martin, Douglas
Helen Gibson Carves the Animals of the Nativity
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1993

Gibson, June
New Mexico Magazine, Volume 67, Number 12, December, 1989, pp. 62-67
(Jemez Pueblo potter Alma Maestas and her nacimientos)

Gingrich, Ruth Ann  and  Mast, Jan Steffy
An Amish Nativity:  Complete Projects and Instructions
Intercourse, Pennsylvania:  Good Books, 1998

Girard, Alexander
The Nativity: The Church Festival Commemorating the Birth of Jesus
A Catalog of the Exhibition of the Girard Foundation Collection of
Nativities at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe
Santa Fe:  Museum of International Folk Art, 1961

Girard, Alexander,  and  Hall, J.
The Nativity 1963
Kansas City, Missouri:  Hallmark Cards, 1962.
(an engagement calendar featuring twelve reproductions from the
Girard collection of Nativities on exhibit in Kansas City in 1962-63)

Glassie, Henry
The Spirit of Folk Art.  The Girard Collection at the Museum of
International Folk Art
New York:  Henry N. Abrams, Incorporated, 1989
(special mention of Nativities: pp. 16, 18, 20, 49, 67, 147 –
photos: 14-15, 19)

Gloria in Excelsis Deo.   Vánoční Poezie Pražských Chrámů
Die Weihnachtspoesie der Prager Kirchen
La Poésia de Noël Dans les Églises Pragoises
Christmas Poesy of Prague Churches
La Poesía de Navidad en las Iglesias Praguenses
La Poesia di Natale Nelle Chiese Praghesi Praha:  Ceska Katolicka Charita, 1959
(all photos identified in each of the languages)

The Glow
Newsletter of The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 17, No. 6 December, 1996
(entire issue devoted to the Crèche)

Gockerell, Nina
Krippen, Nativity Scenes, Crèches
English translation, Pauline Cumbers – French translation, Michele Schreyer
München:  Bayerisches Nationalmuseum   Köln:  Taschen, 1998

Gockerell, Nina
Krippen, Nativity Scenes, Crèches, Nacimientos – 30 Postcards of Nativity
Scenes from the Collection of the Bayerische National Museum, Munich Köln:  Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1998

Goldrick, Tim   Compiled and Edited by
More Than You Need to Know About Christmas, Creches, and Calendar
Customs.  Being a Handbook of Marginally Useful Information for Your Bedside Table
Freetown, Massachusetts:  Pre-Publication Manuscript, 2003

Gordon, Dillian
The Making and the Meaning of the Wilton Diptych
London:  National Gallery Publications, 1993

Govan, James L.
Art of the Creche: Nativities from Around the World
London and New York: Merrell Publishers, 2007
(a pictorial review of more than 100 crèches
from over 70 countries, with a focus on artists
and artisans who made many of the Nativities –
from the collection of Emilia and Jim Govan)
Govan, James L.
Art of the Creche: Nativities from Around the World
London and New York:  Merrell Publishers, 2009
(soft cover edition of the book above)

“The Grand Neapolitan Christmas Crèche”
Italy Italy Magazine, for an Exhibit November 17, 1990-January 7, 1991 at the Rhode Island School of  Design
(articles, photos on Italian Grand Baroque presepi)

Great Masters of Mexican Folk Art
Mexico City:  Fomento Cultural Banamex, A.C., octubre 1998
(“Catalog” of an exhibition which toured several Mexican cities - Nativities specifically: 142-145, 189, 203, 249, 337-38, 508-509, but many others of the artists highlighted produce nativities also)

Greban, Arnoul
The Nativity
Carbondale:  Southern Illinois University, 1991
(15th Century French Christmas play)

Grosch, Daniel J.
Constructing A Christmas Putz
The Board of Christian Education, Moravian Church in America, December, 1994
(Reprinted from The Moravian)
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Grossman, Cathy Lynn
“Manger Carries Crèche Collectors Away”
USA Today, Life Section, December 24, 1998
(collection of Jay Bullock of Columbia, Maryland – story of
Rita Bocher, editor of Creche Herald, Wynnewood,

Gugel, Phillip
“The Birthplace of God”
Christmas.  An Annual Treasury, Volume Sixty-six, pp. 46-51
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, Publishers, 1996
(settings for Nativity scenes in art)

Gugel, Phillip
“The Nativity of Christ”
Christmas.  An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art
Volume Fifty-six, p.3
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1986
(Russian Nativity Icon)

Hanley, Frank L.  and  Gueno, Jeffery G.
“The Historical Crèche”
Hobbies – The Magazine for Collectors, December, 1976

Hanson, Roseann
“Classic Mexican Folk Art. Maria Luisa’s Portrait of Christmas”
Photographs by Edward McCain
Arizona Highways, December 1995, Volume 71, Number 12, pp. 46-49

Harries, Richard
A Gallery of Reflections – The Nativity of Christ
Grand Rapids:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996
(paintings, icons, early representations of the Nativity)

Hayes, Allan  and  Blom, John
Collections of Southwestern Pottery.  Candlesticks to Canteens,
Frogs to Figurines
Flagstaff:  Northland Publishing, 1988
(nacimientos, pp. 36-37)

Hecht, Johanna
The Nativity.  Adapted from an eighteenth century Neapolitan
Christmas Crèche
Watercolors by Borje Svensson
New York:  Delacorte Press, 1981

Hefty, Donna
Folk-Carved Nativity:  Step-by-Step to a Beautiful Christmas
Heirloom, with 11 detailed patterns
Marc Hefty, Photographer
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1995

Heiberg, Jeanne
Advent Arts and Christmas Crafts:  Prayers and Rituals for Family,
School, and Church
New York:  Paulist Press, 1995

Heisley, Michael  and  MacGregor-Villarreal, Mary
More Than A Tradition:  Mexican Nacimientos in Los Angeles
Los Angeles:  Southwest Museum, 1991

Hiebert, Charlene
“Crafting a Christmas Creche”
Christmas.  An Annual Treasury, Volume Sixty-six, pp. 38-42
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1996
(directions for making a Nativity set)

Hock, Ronald F.
The Banned Book of Mary – How Her Story Was Suppressed by
the Church and Hidden in Art for Centuries
Berkeley, California:  Ulysses Press, 2004
(black and white illustrations from classical art)

Housman, Laurence
Bethlehem.  A Nativity Play
London:  Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1927

Howard, Linn  and  Pool, Mary Jane
The Angel Tree.  The Loretta Hines Howard Collection of Eighteenth Century Neapolitan Crèche Figures at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Howard, Linn  and  Pool, Mary Jane
The Angel Tree.  A Christmas Celebration
New York:  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1993

Howard, Linn  and  Pool, Mary Jane
The Christmas Story
Text selected by Linn Howard and Mary Jane Pool
Photographs by Elliott Erwitt
New York:  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2001
(Biblical text illustrated with the 18th-century Neapolitan crèche figures from the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Hutton, Edward
Assisi and Umbria Revisited
New York:  David McKay Company, Inc., 1953
(story of Greccio crèche, pp. 121-122, translation from work by Thomas of Celano)

Iijima, Geneva Cobb
The First Christmas in Origami
Illustrated by Francesca Pelizzoli
Nashville:  Thomas Nelson, 1993

Ives, Philip
The Nativity in Stained Glass: with text from the Bible
New York:  Walker Publishing Co., Inc., 1977
(8 full-page color transparencies that can be mounted on a window – then removed and re-used)

Jedlinski, Sheryl
The Christmas Crèche.  The Evolution of a Family Tradition
Harwood Heights, Illinois:  Roman, Inc., 1986

Jennings, Kate
“Christmas at The Met – The Angel Tree”
December, 1984, pp. 34-39

Joanou, Grace
“Nativity collection featured on pages of Christmas services”
Intelligencer Journal, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Religion section, December 24, 1988
(collection of Lillian Hadley, Cochranville, Pennsylvania)

Johnson, Susan C.
The Neapolitan Presepio
Pittsburgh:  Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art, 1979

Jones, Evan
“Christmas in Provence”
Gourmet Magazine, December, 1989, pp. 108-109, 146-158
(information on living Nativities, santonniers today, with emphasis on recipes and food)

Jordan, Phillip D.
“Around the Manger”
Christmas An Annual of Christmas Literature and Art, Volume Thirty-six, pp. 15-22
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1966
(folk art Nativities from around the world)

Joslyn, Cyndi
North Woods Nativity – Woodworking for Women
Berne, Indiana:  House of White Birches, 2004
(patterns for 16-piece hand-carved Nativity
Set – Wise Men wear snowshoes, skis – raccoon, beaver, mountain goat, big horn sheep, moose, grizzly bear complete scene)

Kalb, Laurie Beth
Crafting Devotion – Tradition in Contemporary New Mexico Santos
Photographs by Mary Peck, Miguel A. Gandert, Susan Einstein
Albuquerque:  University of New Mexico Press, 1994
In association with the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum, Los Angeles
(one specific Nativity, pp. 142, 143 – good re santeros - Bibliography)

Kalb, Laurie Beth
Santos – Statues & Sculpture: Contemporary Woodcarving from New Mexico
Los Angeles:  Folk Art Council of the Craft and Folk Art Museum and the Ethnic Arts Council, 1988
(not directly related to Nativities – good information on santo carvers and their work – Bibliography)

Kaliski, Mary
“The Two Gentlemen of Louisiana”
Miniature Collector Magazine, July/August, 1996, pp. 16-23
(story of miniaturists Frank Hanley and Jeff Guéno, their work, their 17th/18th-Century presepio collection)

Kelly, Joseph F. 
The Origins of Christmas
Collegeville, Minnesota:  Liturgical Press, 2004
(with black and white illustrations from classical art)

Kelsey, Sandee
“The Little Saints”
The Glow, Newsletter of The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 17, Number 6, December, 1996, pp. 8-11
(French santons)

Kitchener, Amy
Familia, Fe y Fiestas.  Mexican American celebrations of the holiday season
Fresno, California:  Arte Americas, 1996

Klug, Ron
“The Christmas Crib”
Christmas. The Annual of Christmas Literature and Art
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1982

Knab, Sophie Hodorowicz
Polish Customs, Traditions, & Folklore
New York:  Hippocrene Books, 1993, Revised Edition 1996
(“December”, pp. 21-55 – “A Szopka”, pp. 43-51 - Bibliography)

Knowles, Laura
“Friends of the Creche”
Lancaster, Pennsylvania: New Era.  November 9, 2001.
(re: Friends of the Creche Convention 2001)

Kochka, Al
The Holy Family through the Ages: A 500-Year Survey of the Crèche Concept
An Exhibit – Amarillo Art Center, December 6, 1986 – January 11, 1987

Kocls, Maryanne
“The Creche – Local man celebrates ‘family’ with nativity collection”
The Macom Daily, “Homefront”, Sunday, December 24, 2000

Koehner, Adele U.
“Uncommon creches.  Exhibit of 50 Nativities from around the world part of ongoing collection:
Dayton Daily News, December 9, 2000

Koslinski, Dennis (English)  and  Szalapak, Anna (Polish)
Krakovian Szopka  from the Collection of the Historical Museum of the City of Krakow.  Szopka Krakowska z. kolekcii Muzeum Historycznego Miasta Krakowa
Exhibit November 18, 1994 – February 15, 1995
Chicago:  The Polish Museum of America, 1994

Koziel, Anna
Szopka Krakowska – Cracow’s Christmas Cribs
Krakow:  Agencia Reklamowa, 2002
(concise history of the Cracow Crib tradition, with black and white and color photos)

Koziel, Anna  and  Kubiena, Jacek
Betlejem Krakowskie – Dziejesz Krowskiej
Krakow Bethlehem, The – The History of the Krakow Szopka
Krakow:  Seweryn Udziela Ethnographic Museum
(history of the Krakow Szopka with photos of finest Museum quality Nativities and scenes of city of Krakow)

Kress, Janice
Macrame Nativity.  A step-by-step guide for creating each character for a unique macramé Nativity scene
Pat Depke, Quality Craft Instructions, 1972/1979

Lamoreaux, Jon
“The Greatest Story Ever Shown”
Wasatch County Courier, Town & Country/Arts and Leisure
November 22, 2000
(Holly Zenger and Friends of the Creche)

Langan, Kay
“Confessions of a Crèche Collector”
Greenwich Magazine, December, 1997, pp. 71-85

Lange, Yvonne
El Nacimiento: The Christmas Crib
Santa Fe:  Museum of International Folk Art, December 19, 1975

LeMarechal, A.
Les Santons de Provence
English version by R. Field
Septemes les Vallons:  Editions PEC, 1997

Lewis, Jay
“Putzing Around – The Making of a World Beneath the Tree”
The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 14, Issue 3, June, 1993, pp. 38-39

Lewitter, L. R.
“The Polish Szopka”
Slavonic Review, no date
(“The Polish puppet Nativity play”)

LIFE.  The Book of Christmas
The Glory of Christmas  (The Story of the Birth)
The Merriment of Christmas  (Family Christmas)
The Pageantry of Christmas  (Development of Christmas Celebrations)
New York:  Time Incorporated, 1963

LIFE Christmas Around the World
Volume 4, Number 5, November 29, 2004
Chicago:  Time Inc., 2004
(section on “The Nativity and the Crèche”, pages 32-35, plus photo of St. Peter’s Square, Rome, Nativity on page 115)

Lister, Priscilla
“Collectible Creches: Antique Nativity Scenes Tell Story of Christmas”
Antique Journal – For the West Coast.  Volume 9, Number 1, December 2001, p. 1++
(also tells about Friends of the Creche)

Litto, Gertrude
South American Folk Pottery
New York:  Watson-Guptill Publications, 1976
(information on several Nnativity-producing potters and towns – Pomaire, Chile – Quinua, Peru – Raquira, Colombia)

MacGregor, John
“Tesuque Pueblo Man Makes Traditional Clay Figures – Dancers, Nativity Favorite Subjects”
The New Mexican, Santa Fe, New Mexico.  September 10, 1967, p. D6
(story of Hispanic clay artist, Manuel Vigil)

Maltese Islands, The Story of Cribs and Pasturi in the In English – Maltese – Italian
Ghawdex, Malta:  Ghaqda Hbleb tai-Presepju, 1985

Maroski, Jack
“The Christmas Putz at Central Moravian Church in Bethlehem PA”
The Glow, Volume 19, No. 3, June, 1998, pp. 8-13

Masterworks in Wood:  The Christian Tradition An Exhibition in the Portland Art Museum.  Financed by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, 1976
(many Nativities discussed)

Mathers, Sandra
“Scenic Views – Nativity collection is labor of love”
Orlando Sentinel, Orange and Seminole Editions, Sunday, December 24, 2000
(tells of the collection of Kathy Wiebel)

Mauron, Marie
Santons of Provence
Translated from the original French manuscript by Melvin Askew and Elena Feis Noth
New York:  Oxford University Press, 1959

McBride, Cheryl
“Creche Dolls”
Hobbies. The Magazine for Collectors.  December 1984, Volume 89, Number 10, pp. 32-33

McCall’s Book of Christmas, The
New York:  Simon and Schuster/The McCall Pattern Company, 1975
(patterns for Nativities and religious figures, pp. 72-85)

McCormick, Kathryn
“Crèche display an Anglican gift to Bethlehem”
Episcopal Life, December, 1999, p. 14
(project to send almost 80 crèches for display at Bethlehem Peace Museum when it opens in January, 2000)

Medieval Christmas, A
Words from the Tyndale translation of the Bible from the Gospels of Saint Mark and Saint Luke
Boston:  A Bulfinch Press Book. Little, Brown & Company, 1996
(illustrations from paintings and manuscripts)

Menick, James J.
A Family Christmas
{Pleasantville, New York:  The Readers Digest Association, 1984
(“Crèche”, pp. 40-45)

Messent, Jan
Knit the Christmas Story
United Kingdom: Search Press, 1987

Metcalf, Edna
The Trees of Christmas
Nashville and New York:  Abingdon Press, 1969
(Putz customs, pp. 110-111)

“Metepec (México) y Su Arte en Barro” / “Metepec and Its Clay Art”
Artes de México, Revista Libro Número 30, Invierno 1995-96
(Nativity on cover and page 62)

Miles, Joan
“A World Made in Miniature”
Italy, Italy Magazine, December, 1990

Miller, Jeff
“One birth, many Nativities”
Photography by Michael Ainsworth
The Dallas Morning News.  Religion Section, pp. 1, 6)
(re LDS Exhibit)

Montgomery, Glenn
“Saint-Alexis International – Searsport’s Saint-Alexis Brings French Tradition to U.S.”
Reprinted from The Waldo Independent, Thursday, December 3, 1992
Published in Le Reveil Acadien , February, 1993,
Volume IX, No. 1, pp. 13-15

Monthan, Guy and Doris
Nacimientos.  Nativity Scenes by Southwest Indian Artisans.
Weihnachtskrippen von Indianischen Kundsthandwerken des Sudwestens Nacimientos hechos por Artistas Indios del Suroeste
Flagstaff:  Northland Press, 1979

Monthan, Guy and Doris
Nacimientos.  Nativity Scenes by Southwest Indian Artisans.
Weihnachtskrippen von Indianischen Kundsthandwerken des Sudwestens Nacimientos hechos por Artistas Indios del Suroeste  + “Changes: 1979-1990”
Albuquerque:  Avanyu Publishing, Inc., 1990

“Moravian Christmas at Bethlehem, A”
Early American Life, Vol. VIII, No. 6, December, 1977, pp. 28-31
(brief history Bethlehem, Pennsylvania – family and community putzes)

Mostra internazionale del presepe francescano.  Rieti, Palazzo
Papale, 4 ottobre 1962 – 31 gennaio 1963
(International exhibit of Franciscan nativities.  Rieti, Papal Palace, 4 october 1962 – 31 january 1963)
Rieti:  Coop. Arti grafiche nobili, 1962
(text in Italian, English, French, German, Spanish)

Mrlian, Rudolf, editor
Slovak Folk Art
Photographs labelled in Czech – English descriptions at back of book
Czechoslovakia:  Artia, c.1962
(one complete 17-piece Nativity + painted backgrounds for Nativity tableaus)

Muhlberger, Richard
The Christmas Story
San Diego:  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990
(told through paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Museo de Belenes  / Nativity Scenes / Crèches
Alicante:  Ayuntamiento de Alicante, no dates
(pamphlets about Museo in Spanish, English, French)

Museum of Tyrolean Popular Art at Innsbruck, Guide through
Innsbruck:  Klischees und Druck, Verlagsanstalt Tyrolia, no date
(Nativities:  pp. 6, 10)

Myers, Richmond E.
“The Moravian Christmas Putz”
Pennsylvania German Folklore Society #6, 1941

“Nacimientos.  Setting the Scene”
Southwest Sampler, Christmas, 1990, pp. 38-41
(brief history – collectors and their displays)

National Gallery of Canada
Venite Adoremus: Notes on the Genoese Crèche/Notes Sur La Crèche Genoise
Genova:  Tormena Editore, 1993
Italian Embassy in Ottawa and Musée de Beaux-Arts de Canada, 1993
(exhibition catalog – December 10, 1993 – January 30, 1994)

“Nativity in Folk Art, The”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 40, Nos. 11-12, November-December, 1962

“Nativity Trail, The” – Holiday Guide Book
Marseille:  Comité Départemental du Tourisme des Bouches-du-Rhone,
no date
(pp. 64-65 and others)

Neapolitan Nativity
Italy Italy Magazine, Year XII, No. 6, December 1994
(limited text - photos of presepio at Caserta)

Nitzsche, George E.
The Christmas Putz of the Pennsylvania Germans
Two sources:  Allentown, Pennsylvania:  The Schlechter Press, 1942
Pennsylvania German Folklore Society #6, 1941

Nold, Liselotte
Cradling the Christ Child.  Preparing for Christmas - A Crèche for Your Home
Translated by Walter G. Tillmanns
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1965

Northrup, Marguerite
The Christmas Story from the Gospels of Matthew and Luke
New York:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Parthenon Books, 1966

Oestreich, Reed
Christmas When and Why
Mansfield, Ohio:  Book Masters, Inc., 1998
(history of Christmas celebrations and customs, including Nativities)

Oettinger, Jr., Marion, Editor
Folk Art of Spain and the Americas – El Alma del Pueblo
Translated by Mervyn Samuel
San Antonio:  San Antonio Museum of Art
New York:  Abbeville Press Publishers, 1997
(traveling exhibition – “Miraculous Images and Living Saints in Mexican Folk Catholicism”, pp. 159-189, provides an understanding of why there were no Nativity “sets” in the early history of Mexico nor, therefore, in the southwestern United States)

Orsini, Jacqueline
M A R Y.  Images of the Holy Mother
San Francisco:  Chronicle Books, 2000
(short text on how the world sees the personage of Mary – plates are mostly paintings, but also other media –
Nativity scenes but no Nativity sets)

Ortega, Peter Ribera
Christmas in Old Santa Fe
Santa Fe:  Piñon Publishing Company, 1961
(“San Francisco y el Nacimiento”, English translation of Brother Velano’s description of how St. Francis
celebrated Christ’s birth in 1223, pp. 53-57)

Ouspensky, Leonid  and  Lossky, Vladimir
The Meaning of Icons
Crestwood, New York:  St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1989

Palmer, Christopher  and  Palmer, Jenny
“Composition Figures for Putzes”
The Golden Glow, Newsletter for The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, November, 1989, pp. 54-55

Panyella, August   General Editor
Folk Art of the Americas 
New York:  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, and Barcelona:  Editorial Blume, 1981
(Nativities: pp. 85, 109. 141, 205, 229 – Bibliography)

Parks, Ted
“Creches Embody – Literally – the Meaning of Christmas for Many Christians”
Religion News Service, December 2001
(Jim Govan, President, Friends of the Creche)

Paskaleva, Kostadenka
Icons from Bulgaria
London:  Alpine Fine Arts Collection, Ltd., 1991

Pelauzy, M. A.
Spanish Folk Crafts
F. Català Roca, Photographer
Translated from the Spanish by Diorki
Barcelona:  Editorial Blume, 1978
(Nativities:  pp. 203-214)

Pellicer, Sr. Carlos, y colaboradores
“Nacimiento, Villancico, y Pastorela”
artes de Mèxico, #72, mayo 1965
Text in Spanish, English, French, German)
(Nativity scenes, Christmas Carols, and religious plays)

Penrod, Sue
"The Nativity to Crochet
Norcross, Georgia:  Plaid Enterprises, Inc., 1983
(contains patterns for 14 Nativity pieces)

Perrone, Antonio
Historic Notes on the Nativity Scene
Naples, 1996

Piazzoli, Giacomo
Presepi del mondo    (Nativities of the World)
Brembo-Dalmine, BG:  Museo del Presepio, 1981

Piccoli Catello, M.     (a cura di)
The Art of the Presepio.  The Neapolitan Crib of the Banco di Napoli Collection
Naples:  Banco di Napoli, 1987

Pierce, Donna  and  Weigle, Marta, Editors
Spanish New Mexico.  The Spanish Colonial Arts Society Collection
Volume One: The Arts of Spanish New Mexico
Volume Two: Hispanic Arts of the Twentieth Century
Santa Fe:  Museum of New Mexico Press, 1996

Pietrsakowa, Ewa Frys  and  Iracka, Anna
Folk Art in Poland
Warsaw:  Arkady Publishing House, 1988
(references to szopka and other Christmas-related topics throughout book)

Pina., Leslie  and  Winfield, Lorit
Nativity.  Creches of the World
Photography by Leslie and Ramon Pina
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2000
(features the collection of Emma Lincoln – Bibliography)

Poling, Lesley
“Christmas in Raton”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 12, December, 1976, pp. 10 & 12
(City of Bethlehem scene with larger than life Nativity)

Porter, Pamela
“Deep Roots Shape Tortugas Nativities”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 75, No. 12, December, 1997, pp. 55-57, 60
(Sisters Carolina Carabajal and Fermina Paz of Tortugas,
New Mexico, make clay Nativities)

Powell, Matthew, O.P.
The Christmas Crèche.  Treasure of Faith Art & Theater
Boston:  Pauline Books & Media, 1997
(definitive work on the crèche - Bibliography)

Powell, Nicholas
“Crèches and Christmas Traditions – Paris Show Observes a Child’s
The Wall Street Journal, December 12, 1986, p. 7
(Review of Paris exhibition “Crèches et Traditions de Noel” at the Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires”

Presepio di Salzillo, Il, Fantasia Ispanica di Natale
El belén de Salzillo, Fantasía Hispánica de la Navidad Esposizione nel Braccio di Carlo Magno, Citta del Vaticano,
12 febraio/11 marzo 1999
(Salzillo’s Nativity.  Spanish Christmas Fantasy)
Text in Italian, Spanish, English
Murcia:  Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, 1999

Prose, Francine
“Christmas in Provence”
Travel & Leisure Magazine, December, 1994, pp. 102-109, 146-148
(“A Family Discovers the Season at Its Purest Through the Eyes of the Villagers of Southern France”)

Quinn, Jim
“Holy Mozzarella!”
The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 25, 1984, p. 50
(story of the Mancuso family sculpting presepio figures from mozzarella in pre-World War II Philadelphia)

Radko, Christoper
“Away in a Manger”
Dobbs Ferry, New York:  Starlight, Winter/Spring 1994

Raggio, Olga
The Nativity.  The Christmas Crèche at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Garden City:  Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965 and 1969
(The Loretta Hines Howard Collection photographed by Lee Boltin)

Reed, Sonja
“The Little Saints of Provence”
International Doll World, November/December, 1991, pp. 80-84

Regalado Trota, José
Images of Faith
Pasadena:  Pacific Asia Museum, 1990
(tells about religious carvings, santos, from the Philippines in general, with some sections dealing with belén figures, specifically)

Renaissance Christmas, A
Boston:  National Gallery of Art, Bulfinch Press Book, Little, Brown and Company, 1991
(Renaissance paintings)

Rice, T. Talbot
Icons.  Art and Devotion
London:  Bracken Books, 1993

Rippley, La Vern J.
“Salzburger’s Crèche/Toy Exhibit”
Christmas. An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art.
Volume Forty-seven, pp. 61-66
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, Publishers, 1977

Ristow, Gunter
The Nativity.  Pictorial Library of Eastern Church Art, Volume 13
Translated from the German by Hans Herrmann Rosenvald
Becklinghausen:  Aurel Bongers, Distributed by Taplinger Publishing Company, 1967.

Rivera, John
“Creches are symbol of faith, art”
Baltimore Sun, December 2, 2001
(re Jim Govan, Friends of the Creche)

Ronzoni, Domenico Flavio
Un presepe racconta.  Un presepe di carta dell’Ottocento rescoperto in Brianza
Fotografie di Giuseppi Giudini
Missaglia:  Bellavite, 1999
(exhibition catalog – Bibliography – Italian, English, French texts)

Rosenak, Charles B.
“The Storytellers – Louis and Virginia Naranjo Craft Stories in Clay”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 66, No. 8, August 1988, pp. 46-53

Rosenak, Chuck and Jan
Museum of American Folk Art – Encyclopedia of 20th Century
American Folk Art and Artists
New York:  Abbeville Press Publishers, 1990
(Southwestern Nativity makers, Helen Cordero, Louis Naranjo Manuel Vigil, among others)

Rosenak, Chuck and Jan
The People Speak – Navajo Folk Art
Photographs by Lynn Lown
Flagstaff:  Northland Publishing Company, 1994
(Nativity photos: Mamie Deschillie, p. 27, Tom Yazzie, p. 76 – Bibliography)

Rosenthal, E.
“The Crib of Greccio and Franciscan Realism”
The Art Bulletin, Vol. 36, 1954, pp. 57-60

Rothstein, Arden Aibel  and  Rothstein, Anya Leah
Mexican Folk Art from Oaxacan Artist Families
Atglen, Pennsylvania:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2002
(in-depth study of folk artists of Oaxaca, many of whom produce Nativities – some on pp. 15, 17, 24, 52, 56, 103, 105)

Rourke, Mary
“All That’s Holy, and Then Some”
Los Angeles Times, “Southern California Living”, January 6, 2002, pp.2-3
(story of East Los Angeles Nativity Scenes)

Rouse, W. H. D.
“Religious Tableaux in Italian Churches”
Folklore, Volume 5, Number 34, 1984, p. 6

Ruland, Josef
Christmas in Germany
With contributions by Emil Barth, Wolfgang Henrich, Johannes Kessler, Theodor Storm, Ulrich Tolksdorf
Bonn:  Hohwacht, 1992
Bonn:  Inter Nationes, 2nd Revised Edition, 1992
(“The Christmas Crib”, pp. 89-100)

Saba, Marcel, Director of Photography
Christmas Around the World
San Francisco:  Collins Publishers, 1996
(modern photography of Christmas customs, including Nativities)

Salvador, Mari Lyn C.
Cuando hablan los santos – Contemporary Santero Traditions from Northern New Mexico
Spanish translations by Erlinda Gonzáles-Berry, Alejandro Lopez, Juan José Pena
Santa Fe:  Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, 1995
(exhibition catalog, contemporary Hispanic devotional art )

Samuelson, Sue
Christmas: An Annotated Bibliography
Garland Folklore Bibliographies, Vol. 4
New York:  Garland Publishing Inc., 1982

Samuelson, Sue
“Nativity Scenes:  Description and Analysis”
Folklore and Mythology Studies #3, Spring, 1979, pp. 5-16

Sayer, Chloe
Arts and Crafts of Mexico
San Francisco:  Chronicle Books, 1990
(Nativity figures:  pp. 110, 111, 124 - bibliography)

Schmidt, Esther & Franklin
“From Collector to Creator”
Art and Antique, December, 1999.  pp. 59-63
(story of Jeffery Gueno and his Neapolitan presepio)

Sciorra, Joseph
“Imagined Places, Fragile Landscapes: Italian-American
Presepi (Nativity Crèches) in New York City”
The Italian American Review.  A Social Science Journal of the Italian-American Experience, Volume 8, Number 2, Autumn/Winter 2001, pp. 141-173

Seeley, Mary Evans
Season’s Greetings From The White House
Tampa:  A Presidential Christmas, 1996, 1998
(Nativities: frontispiece, pp. 4, 104, 111, 128-130, 168, 179, 184)

Shaeler, A. D.
The Story of the Christmas Putz
Hernhut, Germany:  Gustav Winter, 1927

Shoemaker, Alfred L.
Christmas in Pennsylvania.  A Folk-Cultural Study
Kutztown, Pennsylvania:  Pennsylvania Folklore Society, 1959
(“Of Pyramids and Putzes”, pp. 104-111)

Shoemaker, Alfred L.
Christmas in Pennsylvania.  A Folk-Cultural Study
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania:  Stackpole Books, 1999
(“Moravian Christmas Putz”, pp. 126-128 “The Moravian Christmas Putz, Its Origins”, pp. 142-143)

Short, Kay
How Far to Bethlehem?  Planning, Producing, and Creating Your Own Drive-Through Nativity
Cover Photography by Ron Benedict and Sid Dorris
Design, layout, and illustration by John Boegel
Nashville:  Abingdon Press, 1989

Simons, Mary
“The Crèches of Naples”
Life Magazine, December, 1980

Sledge, Linda Ching
Shivering Babe, Victorious Lord.  The Nativity in Poetry and Art
Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Wm. B. Erdmans Co., 1981

Smith, Jean Louise
“Christmas in Glass”
A Christmas Gallery, pp. 48-54Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1970

Smith, Jean Louise
“Christmas Wonder – Oberammergau’s Gift to Us
Christmas. An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art,
Volume Twenty-Nine, pp. 19-26
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1959

Smith, Jean Louise
“The Nativity – As Interpreted in Wood-Carving”
Christmas.  An Annual of Christmas Literature and Art,
Volume Sixteen
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1946

Smith, Jean Louise
“The Nativity as Interpreted in Wood Carving”
A Christmas Gallery, pp. 17-24
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1970

Smith, Jean Louise
“Tapestries of Christmas”
Christmas.  An Annual of Christmas Literature and Art,
Volume Thirty-six, pp. 34-43
Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1966

Smith, Jeff
The Frugal Gourmet Celebrates Christmas
New York:  William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1991
(crèche scenes and notes about individuals, as well as…“a recipe for everyone who appears in the traditional crèche or manger scene. There is a dish for each.”,  pp. 1-105)

Smith, Lissa and Dick
Christmas Collectibles.  A Guide to Selecting, Collecting and Enjoying the Treasures of Christmas Past
Secaucus:  Chartwell Books, Inc., 1993
(Nativities, putzes, pp. 8, 68-73 - Bibliography)

Spaeth, Eloise
Two Eighteenth Century Neapolitan Crèches
New York:  no publisher, 1961

Spinola, Giandomenico
Splendors of Christmas:  Images of the Birth of Christ from the Vatican Museums at the Knights of Columbus Museum, New Haven, Connecticut, Winter 2001-2002
New Haven:  Knights of Columbus, 2002

Stapleton, Constance
Crafts of America
New York:  Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988
(mention of Lila Marshall, Nicklesville, Virginia, maker of cornhusk crèches)

Stephenson, Michael
The Christmas Almanac
Oxford:  Oxford University Press
London:  Mirabel Books, 1992
(Christmas crib: pp. 83-4, 108, 110)

Steplen, Karin, Editor
The Library of Great Masters:  Della Robbia
Riverside:  Scala, 1992
(crèches  -  Bibliography)

Sticco, Maria
The Peace of St. Francis
Translated from the Italian by Salvator Attanasio
New York:  Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1962
(story of the presepio of Greccio, pp. 197-199)

Stock, Robert W.
“Fanciful Crèche Figures of Provence” 
The New York Times, December 23, 1990, pp. 6 & 11, Travel

Story of the Wise Men, The.  According to the Gospel of Saint Matthew
New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Publishers, with the Trianon Press, Paris, 1964
(story of the Three Wise Men as carved on 4 stone capitals in the Cathedral of Autun, Burgundy, France, by medieval sculptor Gislebertus)

Sullivan, Rosemary D.
“Crèches: Miniature Mangers”  The Encyclopedia of Collectibles
Alexandria:  Time-Life Books, 1978

Sullivan, Rosemary D.
“The Santons of Provence”
Hobbies, The Magazine for Collectors, December, 1977

Swarzenske, Hans    Introduction
An 18th Century Crèche
Boston:  Museum of Fine Arts, 1966,  and New York:  October House, 1972
(Introduction pp. 5-15  -  Plates pp. 17-55  -  Bibliography)

Szalapak, Anna
Szopki Krakowskie – Cracovian Christmas Cribs
Krakowa:  Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa, Bosz/Olszanica, Poland
(Polish-English language text – published to commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Cracow Crib Competition)

Tangerman, E. J.
The Big Book of Whittling and Woodcarving
New York:  Dover Publications, Inc., 1973
(“How to Carve a Nativity Scene”, pp. 100-105)

Testini, Prof. Pasquale
The Christian Catacombs in Rome
Rome:  Ente Provinciale Per Il Turismo de Roma, no date
(early examples of crèche art in the Catacombs of Rome)

Thomas, Marcel
The Golden Age.  Manuscript painting at the time of Jean, Duke of Berry
New York:  George Braziller, 1979
(several Nativities depicted)

Timchenko, S. V.
Russian Icons Today
Mockba:  Cobpemehhnk, 1994
(text in Russian and English – Nativity icons depicted)

Tryk, Sheila
“Artists and the Holy Family”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 12, December, 1976, pp. 54-55

United States Postal Service
Madonna and Child
Seventeen Classic Christmas Stamp Image Postcards, 1997

V. J. M. y J.  Viva Jesús, María y José – A Celebration of the Birth of Jesus
San Antonio:  Trinity University Press, 1977
(Mexican Folk Art and Toys from the Collection of Robert K. Winn – Bibliography)

Van Lannen, Bill
“Iowa collector won’t forget the true meaning of Christmas”
Antique Trader.  Vol. 45, No. 31,  “Collector Profile”, p. 12
(Also:  “Join the Club”  Friends of the Creche)

Van Mullekom-Cserep, Elisabeth
Christmas Nativities & Stories.  The Christmas Story told in a most unusual way with Nativity scenes, poems and stories from all over the world!
Hoesley Park, Australia; Des Plaines, Illinois:  Nativity House Publishing, 1999

Vaughan, Carolyn
The Gifts of the Magi.  Gold, and Frankincense, and Myrrh
New York:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Boston:  A Bulfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company, 1998
(book is boxed with samples of the gifts:  24-kt gold in a glass bottle, with frankincense and myrrh in mesh bags)

Vigil, Arnold
“Crèche collection spans the planet”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 75, No. 12, December, 1997, pp. 58-59
(collection of Joseph E. Valdes, a former Mayor of Santa Fe)

Vigil, Arnold
“Tumbling to Bethlehem”
New Mexico Magazine, Vol. 68, No. 12, December, 1990, pp. 88-91
(Anna Mae Salazar of Velarde, New Mexico, creates crèches from tumbleweeds)

Volkman, Sharon
Crochet.  Heirloom Nativity
Berne, Indiana:  House of White Birches, 1999
(patterns with full instructions for 16 crochet Christmas Nativity designs)

Wasserspring, Lois
Oaxacan Ceramics – Traditional Folk Art by Oaxacan Women
San Francisco:  Chronicle Books, 2000
(biographies of six ceramic artisans, four of whom produce Nativities.  Lovely photos throughout)

Watkins, Sherri A.
“Creches of the World”
Catholic Standard.  Vol. 50, No. 51.  December 21, 2000
(story about Jim Govan and Friends of the Creche)

Waugh, Julia Nott
The Silver Cradle.  Las Posadas, Los Pastores, and Other Mexican American Traditions
Austin:  University of Texas Press, 1988, paperback   1955, hardcover
(chapters 2 and 3 deal with the role of the nacimiento in the posadas and pastores traditions in San Antonio, Texas)

Weber, Hans-Ruedi
Immanuel.  The Coming of Jesus in Art and the Bible
Grand Rapids:  William B. Eerdmans, 1984
(a variety of illustrations, early frescoes through contemporary cribs)

Weiser, Francis X.
The Christmas Book
New York:  Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952
(development of Nativity in United States, pp. 97-98 – putz, p. 108)

Wernecke, Herbert H.
Christmas Customs Around the World
Philadelphia:  The Westminster Press, no date, c.1968
(Nativity scenes in various countries - Bibliography)

Whitaker, Irwin & Emily
A Potter’s Mexico
Albuquerque:  University of New Mexico Press, 1978
(Teodora Blanco and her nacimientos, pp. 103-107  -  Bibliography)

Whitmyer, Margaret & Kenn
Christmas Collectibles
Paducah:  Collector Books, A Division of Schroeder Publishing Co., Inc., 1987.  Values updated 1990
(Nativity scenes:  pp. 137-141, 158, 218)

Whyte, Malcolm
The Meaning of Christmas
San Francisco:  Troubador Press, 1973
(brief history of the crèche, p. 36)

Williams, Deanna
Away in a Manger
Los Angeles: Cornerstones Magazine, Supplement to Winter 2009 #46
(catalog of Nativity items in the collection of the author)

Wills, Garry
“Art and Politics of the Nativity, The”
The New York Review, December 19, 1996, pp. 75-82

Wills, Garry
“Christmas in Naples, Home of the Crèche”
The New York Times, December 22, 1991, p. 15
(“Elaborate Nativity scenes are displayed and sold”)

Wilson, Maggie
“The Beauty Makers”
Arizona Highways Magazine, Special Edition: “Southwestern Pottery Today”, Vol. L, No. 5, May, 1974
(Nativities of Helen Cordero, Cochiti Pueblo Potter)

Winsted, Manya
“Spirit of Christmas Past”
Santa Fean Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 11, December, 1996
(collection of Ray Crenna of Nambe/Santa Fe, New Mexico)

Wood, Jeremy
The Nativity.  Themes in Art
London:  Scala Publications Limited, in association with Paris:  Reunion des Musees Nationaux, 1992
(illustrations are Nativity-related paintings)

Woolley, Patricia
Santons.  Provencal Crèche Figures
Manhattan Beach, California:  Teddy Traveler Press, 1987

Zmijewski, Chester M.
“An 18th Century Nativity Scene”
The Glow, Newsletter of The Golden Glow of Christmas Past, Volume 19, No. 4, August, 1998, pp. 2-3
(Presepio of the Basilica of Sts. Cosmos and Damian, Rome)



“The First Christmas Crib. A Story of St. Francis of Assisi”
Introduced by Murray Bodo, O.F.M.
Cincinnati, Ohio:  St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1998
VHS.  12 minutes.  Suitable for all ages, children – adults
(story of St. Francis’ Christmas Crib of 1223, shown through use of handmade crèche figures, plus a musical presentation illustrated by Nativity scenes from around the world)

“Nativity.  The Art and Spirit of the Crèche”
A Prologue Video Production
Writer/Producer  Robert G. Maier
Director/Editor  Brian W. Scott with Rev. Paul Philibert, O.P.,
Fr. Francis Kline, O.C.S.O., Mr. Earl Kage
Moncks Corner, South Carolina:  Mepkin Abbey, 2004
DVD.  30 minutes
(collection of Mepkin Abbey’s Nativities)